The Hudson-Hall-Wheaton American Inn of Court
About our Namesakes
Robert D. Hudson
Robert D. Hudson was born in 1900. He received his law degree from Vanderbilt
University in 1921, and was appointed one of the first Tulsa County Common Pleas Judges in
1922 at age 22. In 1926, he was appointed to the district bench to which he was elected in
In 1929, he resigned from the bench at age 29 and entered private practice.
He was elected president of the Tulsa County Bar Association in 1943 as a write-in
candidate. He became somewhat of a legend as a trial lawyer of forty years. Over that
period he participated in many of Tulsa's major and historic cases. Mr. Hudson was one of
the first Fellows selected from Oklahoma when the American College of Trial Lawyers was
formed in the 1950s. Mr. Hudson exemplified the American Inns of Court goals of
competence, civility and ethics more than any gentleman trial lawyer. He died in 1969
sitting in court at the Tulsa County Courthouse.
Amos T. Hall
Amos T. Hall was born in 1896. A self-taught lawyer, he passed the bar in 1925 after
serving as custodian of the First Methodist Church. He was the first elected black judge
in Oklahoma. He was named outstanding citizen of Tulsa by the Tulsa Chamber of Commerce.
Judge Hall was a close and personal friend of former U.S. Supreme Court Justice
Thurgood Marshall, as chief counsel of the NAACP, always associated with Mr. Hall in
significant Oklahoma race litigation. This was a tribute to both Mr. Hall's ability and
their close personal relationship.
Amos Hall was a very kind, considerate and personable man. He had an innate humility
that made him appear soft spoken. But when basic legal rights were involved, he was a
dynamic advocate and a truly outstanding and articulate trial lawyer. He died in 1971.
Norma Frazier Wheaton
Mrs. Wheaton was born in 1899 and admitted to the bar of Oklahoma in 1927. She was the
first woman president of the Tulsa County Bar Association in 1946. She was the first woman
lawyer on the Board of Governors of the Oklahoma Bar Association. She was the chair of the
Insurance Section of the OBA for numerous years in the 1950s. She was the first names
woman partner in a major Oklahoma law firm (Hudson, Hudson & Wheaton) in the late
twenty-five years before any other woman was made a partner.
Mrs. Wheaton's trial work was primarily in commercial law, domestic relations,
insurance subrogation and life insurance law, as well as contested wills and inheritance
matters. Mrs. Wheaton was bilingual, speaking fluent Spanish. She was a truly outstanding
lawyer. She died in 1973.
MONTHLY MEETING INFORMATION
Monthly Program Agenda: The Hudson-Hall-Wheaton Inn meets
once a month from September through April (except in December). The monthly
meetings will usually follow this basic pattern:
Social Hour - A cash bar, with beer and wine,
5:30 - 5:45
Dinner - The meals will be catered by Freddie's Bar-B-Que and Steak House.
5:45 - 5:50
Speaker and Topic Introductions
5:50 - 6:20 Pupilage
Group Presentation: Speaker
presentation on topic.
6:20 - 6:40
Prepared Questions - Pupilage group
prepared questions for Speaker
6:40 - 6:55
Announcements and Adjournment
Location: The September meeting is scheduled to be held on
the Fourth Floor of the United States District Court, 333 West Fourth Street,
Tulsa, Oklahoma, beginning in the Jury Assembly Room. The location of the
monthly meetings for the rest of the year will be stated in your monthly meeting
notice. There have been a few occasions in the past when meeting dates and/or
locations had to be changed. It is therefore very important that you read your
monthly meeting notice. The notice also contains any other announcements of
which members need to be advised between monthly meetings.
R.S.V.P.: A monthly meeting notice is sent to all
members. All members are required to RSVP to the person designated on the notice
by the date stated on the notice. This insures an accurate attendance count for
meals and program materials. Failure to compy with this policy may cause
membership to be revoked.
Attendance Policy for Masters, Barristers, Associates and Students:
policy does not apply to Masters Emeritus or to Honorary Life Masters. A sign-in
sheet will be provided at each monthly meeting. All members should sign in upon
arrival. This information is used to determine compliance with the attendance
policy of our chapter and for certification of CLE. One of the strengths of the
Inns of Court program is the substantial benefit conferred on the membership by
the association of the members with each other for the purpose of improvement of
the profession and the professional lives of the members. In order to remain a
member in good standing, a member may miss no more then two meetings during any
Inn year. A member's compliance with this policy and other Inn polices will be
taken into consideration in evaluating a member for continued or future
membership in the Inn. If the records of the Inn reflect that a member has
missed two meetings, the Membership Committee will send a letter to the member
that advises the member that any additional unexcused absences may jeopardize
the member's continued participation in the Inn. Professional and personal
conflicts may arise at any time, preventing a member from attending a meeting of
the Inn, despite the best intentions of the member to attend. If a situation
prevents a member's attendance and it is brought to the attention of a member of
the Membership Committee either before or after the meeting, extenuating
circumstances can be taken into account.
Pupilage Groups: Members are assigned to one of six Pupilage
Groups. Each group is responsible for conducting one monthly program for the Inn
each year. The programs consist of trial demonstrations, presentations and
discussions designed to advance trial skills, respect for the judicial process,
civility and ethics.
Membership: The membership of the Inn is structured as follow: (1)
Masters, who are judges, professors or attorneys with at least 15 years of legal
experience and who are permanent members; (2) Barristers, who generally have six
to fourteen years of legal experience and who serve three year terms; (3)
Associates, who generally have one to six years of legal experience and who
serve two year terms; (4) senior Law Students who serve one year terms; and,
Masters Emeritus and Honorary Life Masters who are permanent members.
Web site: You may obtain updated information throughout the year
by visiting our web site at
thanks to Judge Charles Hogshead for his work on creating and maintaining our website.
CONTINUING LEGAL EDUCATION INFORMATION
Credit: Members receive 1.5 hours of CLE credit,
including .25 hours of ethics, for each monthly meeting they attend. The CLE
chairperson distributes individual attendance records at the January meeting.
Attendance: Monthly attendance records for CLE purposes
are kept directly off of the sign-in sheet.
Written Materials: In order for a program to qualify for
CLE credit, written materials must be provided by the group responsible for the
monthly program. As a general guide, there should be 15-20 pages of substantive
material per hour of presentation. Note: The two annual banquets may only
be counted for CLE credit if written materials are provided.
THE AMERICAN INNS OF COURT FOUNDATION
The national organization of the American Inns of Court is the American
Inns of Court Foundation. The address and telephone number of the Foundation
American Inns of Court Foundation
127 Peyton Street
Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Fax (703) 684-3607
Web Site: http://www.innsofcourt.org
THE THOMAS R. BRETT AWARD
Each year the Executive Committee of the Hudson-Hall-Wheaton Chapter selects one
member to receive the Thomas R. Brett award. Named for the United States
District Judge who was instrumental in bringing all three chapters of the Inns
of Court to the Northern District of Oklahoma, the award recognizes those
qualities sought to be fostered through membership in the Inns of
Court--excellence in legal ability, leadership, professionalism, civility and
The recipients of the Thomas R. Brett Award are:
1997 J. Warren Jackman, Esq.
1998 Alfred B. Knight, Esq.
1999 Bruce W. Freeman, Esq.
2000 Edwin W. Ash, Esq.
2001 Craig W. Hoster, Esq.
2002 David L. Bryant, Esq..
2003 Patricia Neel, Esq.
2004 Phil Richards, Esq.
2005 J Schaad Titus, Esq.
2006 Barry Reynolds, Esq.
2007 (No Award Given)
2008 Ron Ricketts, Esq.
2008 Jack R. Givens, Esq.
2009 Steven K. Balman, Esq.
2010 Susan Morgan, Esq.
THE OUTSTANDING SERVICE AWARD
Outstanding Service Award was created in 2008. Each year, the
Hudson-Hall-Wheaton Executive Committee and Masters select one member to receive
the Outstanding Service Award, to be presented to a member who goes above
and beyond the requirements of membership in contributing time and/or talents to
the promotion and betterment of our Chapter. Judges, Barristers and
Associates, who are not eligible for the Thomas R. Brett Award are eligible for
The recipients of the
Outstanding Service Award are:
2007-2008 The Honorable Charles R. Hogshead
2008-2009 The Honorable Charles R. Hogshead
The following persons have served as Presidents of the
1995-1996 The Honorable David E. Winslow
1996-1997 The Honorable Sam A. Joyner
1997-1998 The Honorable Frank H. McCarthy
1998-1999 The Honorable Dana L. Rasure
1999-2000 The Honorable Gregory K. Frizzell
2000-2001 The Honorable Linda G. Morrissey
2001-2002 The Honorable Thomas Thornbrugh
2002-2003 The Honorable Deirdre Dexter
2003-2004 The Honorable Paul Cleary
2004-2005 The Honorable Paul Cleary
2005-2006 The Honorable Rebecca Brett Nightingale
2006-2007 The Honorable Charles R. Hogshead
2007-2008 The Honorable Sheila A. Condren
2008-2009 The Honorable Mary F. Fitzgerald
2009-2010 The Honorable William C. Kellough
2010-2011 The Honorable David Youll
2011-2012 The Honorable Gregory K. Frizzell
2012-2013 The Honorable William C. Kellough
2013-2014 The Honorable Douglas W. Golden
2014-2015 The Honorable KurtG. Glassco
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE & OFFICERS
THE ENGLISH INNS OF COURT
This description of the English
Inns of Court is based upon and derived from the discussion of the Inns that
appears at "Online Law -- Lawyers on the Web", a British legal website at
The American Inns of Court are modeled upon the English Inns of Court.
English barristers -- lawyers who can appear in English courts -- belong to one
of four Inns of Court: Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, the Inner Temple, and the
"Gray's Inn for walks,
Lincoln's for your call,
the Inner for a garden,
And the Middle for its Hall."
The Inns of Court are ancient, unincorporated bodies of lawyers. For
five centuries and more, the Inns have had the power to call to the Bar those of
their members who have duly qualified for the rank of Barrister-at-Law. With
the power of call goes the power to disbar and punish for misconduct, a power
which has had to be exercised only infrequently. In modern times, education for
call to the Bar and discipline are largely the business of joint bodies, but the
four Inns of Court -- Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, the Inner Temple, and the
Middle Temple -- remain distinct, as friendly rivals, each with its own
property, duties, and functions. Robert Megarry, An Introduction To
Lincoln's Inn (hereinafter, "Megarry").
Gray's Inn was formerly the London palace of Lord Gray and is located
north of High Holborn Street. "Holborn" refers to the Hole Bourne, a stream
which was a tributary of the Fleet River (and, ultimately, the Thames). The
Honorable Society of Gray's Inn traces its history to the de Grey family. Many
members of the de Grey family were associated with the law. For example, Walter
de Grey was Lord Chancellor in 1206-14.
Gray's Inn rose to prominence during the reign of Elizabeth I
(1558-1603). Members of the Inn still refer to "Good Queen Bess" with fondness
and affection. Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors was first performed at
Grey's Inn in 1594.
Distinguished members and honorary members of Gray's Inn include Sir
William Gascoigne, Lord Chief Justice in the reign of King Henry V, Sir Francis
Bacon, later Lord Verulam, Lord Chancellor (and inventor of the scientific
method); Lord Macaulay, poet and man of letters; Edward Heath; Sir Winston
Churchill; Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States (1932-45); and
H.R.H. Charles, Prince of Wales. The current Lord Chancellor, Lord Elwyn-Jones,
is a member of Gray's Inn.
Lincoln's Inn was formerly the London palace of the Earl of Lincoln.
Lincoln's Inn occupies eleven acres in central London, and is situated in the
rectangle formed by High Holborn Street on the north, Corey Street and the Royal
Courts of Justice on the south, Chancery Lane on the east and Lincoln's Inn
Fields on the west. The Old Bailey is less than half a mile to the east.
Lincoln's Inn, by tradition, is the oldest of the four Inns of Court.
The Inn's formal records, contained in the "Black Books" (so called because of
their black covers), go back continuously to 1422.
Some scholars think that the Ordinance of Edward I made in 1292 enabled
and inspired the founding of the Inns. That Ordinance placed both branches of
the legal profession -- the barristers and the solicitors -- under the control
of the judges, and "hastened the end of the clergy as lawyer's in the King's
courts." Megarry. The new breed of professional lawyers that began to emerge,
"needed places where they could congregate, and where apprentices could be
housed." Id. The Inns of Court met those needs.
Distinguished members of Lincoln's Inn include Sir Thomas More (a man
for all seasons); Sir Matthew Hale (who entered as a student in 1626); Earl of
Mansfield (called to the Bar in 1730); and Lords Brougham, Eldon, and Erskine.
Other famous members of Lincoln's Inn include John Donne, Horace Walpole,
William Penn, William Pitt, Dwight Eisenhower, and Dean Acheson.
The Inner Temple is situated in central London, and occupies a large
area of land bounded by Fleet Street on the north and Victoria Embankment on the
south. The Inner Temple, or "Inner", occupies the long deserted premises of the
Knights Templar, an order of chivalry that flourished during the Crusades. The
Crusades were military - religious expeditions that Europeans made to the "Holy
Lands" -- Jerusalem and other Islamic territories. Those expeditions figure
prominently in the legends of Richard the Lion Hearted, Ivanhoe, and Robin Hood,
and in the traditions of the Inner and Middle Temples.
Distinguished members of the Inner Temple include Sir Edward Coke, the
father of the common law; Geoffrey Chaucer; and James Boswell, biographer and
friend of Dr. Johnson.
The Inner Temple also figures prominently in fiction and literature.
Horace Rumpole is a member of the Temple. Some of the action in a Sherlock
Holmes story, A Scandal In Bohemia, takes place in the Inner Temple.
The Middle Temple occupies the same general area as the Inner Temple,
and shares a common origin with the Inner. One commentator has described the
Middle Temple as "a beautiful bride" and the Inner as "her dull husband". See
Timothy Tyndale Daniell, The Lawyers (hereinafter "Daniell").
The Temple divided into two separate societies in approximately 1500.
In the nearly five hundred years since the division, the Middle Temple has
produced some great and distinguished lawyers: Sir William Blackstone, author
of the "Commentaries"; Lord Chancellors Clarendon, Somers, Hardwicke, Eldon,
Finlay, Sankey, and Jowitt; and Lords Chief Justices Cockburn, Coleridge, and
Reading. See Daniell. Other famous members include Charles Dickens, Sir
Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Humphrey Gilbert (of Gilbert & Sullivan),
and Edmund Burke. Burke wrote "it is not what a lawyer tells me I may do, but
what humanity, reason and justice, tell me I ought to do." Id.
* * *
The education of an English barrister is very different from that of an
American lawyer. Barristers earn an academic law degree (or its equivalent),
and then take the Bar Vocational Course (BVC) at the Inns of Court School of Law
in London. Among other things, the BVC affords would-be barristers the
opportunity to debate, to moot (hold mock trials), to attend court, and to
marshall ("shadow" a judge).
The one year BVC prepares the students for the next step in the
education of a barrister, the pupilage. Barristers practice in sets of
"chambers", not law firms. Many of the chambers are physically located at the
Inns of Court. The pupilage is a series of two or three six month internships -
or "sixes" - in different sets of chambers.
Pupilages are difficult and demanding. Pupils are assigned to one or
more pupilmasters or pupilmistresses, experienced barristers who organize
training, allocate work and assess the performance of the prospective
barristers. The first "six" consists of watching and helping more experienced
barristers, doing legal research and drafting documents. At the end of the
first "six," the pupil receives a certificate authorizing him to take on work of
The transition to the second "six" is significant and quite daunting.
This is where you start to build your own reputation. You have cases of your
own, clients of your own, court appearances of your own resulting in cases won
Pupils compete to obtain junior tenancy in chambers. The competition is
fierce. Only about sixty percent (60%) of the students who obtain a pupilage
secure a tenancy. Those who succeed become "juniors".
Junior barristers handle small cases on their own and occasionally
assist senior barristers in large, important cases. The senior, first chair
barristers are referred to (in the context of the case) as "leaders" and "lead"
the junior barristers.
After several years of practice, a junior barrister may apply to the
Lord Chancellor's office to become a Queen's Counsel, or "Q.C.". Q.C.s are
senior barristers, specialists in litigation, and the lawyers most likely to be
appointed to senior judgeships. A barrister who becomes a Q.C. is said to "take
silk" because Q.C.s wear silk robes rather than the cloth robe of the junior
barristers. Q.C.s are also called "silks".
The highest rank of membership in the Inns of Court is the "Bencher", or
Master of the Bench. The Benchers are the governing body of the Inn. They meet
periodically as a body in Council. Benchers are elected by the Council. It is
customary to elect (i) all members of the Inn appointed to high judicial office,
(ii) most practicing Q.C.s of more than five or six years standing in silk, and
(iii) a few distinguished "juniors" (no matter what their age or years of
Benchers take precedence in the Inn according to the order of their call
to the bench, "irrespective of any office or honor they may hold." http://www.online-law.co.uk/bar/lincolns/history/benchers.html. As a consequence, an ordinary lawyer can be senior to a judge, a
prime minister or even a Royal Bencher (a member of the royal family who is
called to the Bench).